Saint Gury (Gurias)
Archbishop Gury (secular name Gregory Rugotin) was born in about Miraculous he was released from prison: the cell, where he lived, was filled one day by extraordinary light and Gregory found the door opened. He took his icon of the God’s Mother and went to the Joseph Volokolamsk Monastery, where became a monk. Since 1543 he was abbot of this monastery. Two years, which Gregory spent in damp and cold prison, undermined his health. That is why he had to resign from abbacy after more than 8 years of abbot’s service and went on to live here as an ordinary monk. But in spite of this, 2 years later he was appointed abbot of the Selizharov Monastery in the Tver diocese. In February 1555, he was consecrated Archbishop of newly set Kazan diocese.
On May 26 of the same year was celebrated send-off of St. Gury to the place of new service. On July 2 he came to Sviyazhsk, on 28 – to Kazan. St. Gury became a Christian enlightener of natives: he baptized and homilied in the orthodox faith. He paid particularly attention to building of monasteries and schools, children’s education in Christian faith. On December 5, 1563 St. Gury died.
His relics were found on October 4, 1595.
St. Herman (secular name Gregory) was born to the Boyar family Sudarev-Polevoy in about 1505 in Staritsa town, Tver province. When he was 25 he was tonsured a monk in the Joseph Volokolamsk Monastery. He was in this monastery till 1551, when he became Archimandrite of the Staritsky Monastery. He’s kept this post for 2,5 years until went on rest.
He was close to St. Gury since they have met each other in the Joseph Volokolamsk Monastery and in 1555 he became a chief assistant of St. Gury as an Archimandrite of the Sviyazhsk Monastery in newly organized Kazan diocese. On March 12, 1564 St. Herman became second Kazan bishop. In 1566 he was called to Moscow to the Metropolitan’s throne. He demanded Tsar Ioann (John) the Terrible to abolish a terror carried out by him (“oprichnina”) and Ioann IV removed him from the Metropolitan’s palace. After that, St. Herman lived in Moscow as Archbishop of Kazan. On November 6, 1567 he was martyred and was buried by two his archimandrites (Jeremiah and Hirodion – Archimandrite of the Sviyazhsk Monastery) in the Church of St. Nicholas the Wet Later Archimandrite Jeremiah became Archbishop of Kazan. In 1594 relics of St. Herman were removed to Sviyazhsk.
Bishop Lavrenty I (Laurence I)
Since 1566, Archbishop Lavrenty was an abbot of the Joseph Volokolamsk Monastery. On February 9, 1568, he was consecrated Archbishop of Kazan. He died on July 13, 1574 and was buried in the Volokolamsk Monastery, where he spent his last years living probably on rest there.
Well known that Archbishop Vassian was an abbot in the Ipatiev Monastery of the Holy Trinity in Kostroma since 1559 (according to other sources – from 1558 to 1566). Since 1571 (according to other sources – since 1569), he was an Archimandrite of the Moscow New Savior Monastery. In 1572 he was on the council devoted to the forth marriage of Ioann the Terrible. On February 14, 1575 he was consecrated archbishop. He was Kazan archbishop only for 3 months and on May 21, 1575 he died. In Kazan he lived only 4 weeks. He was buried in the Kazan Cathedral at the north wall.
Archbishop Tikhon I
The fifth on Kazan cathedra was Archbishop Tikhon (Khvorostin). In 1572 – 1573, he was an abbot of the Ugreshsk Monastery and later of the Volokolamsk Monastery. On July 5, 1575 he was consecrated bishop.
On April 11, 1576 St. Barsonuphius, Bishop of Tver, died. He was buried by Tikhon I. Archbishop Tikhon died on June 11of the same year. He adjured to bury him under the church-porch of the Holy Trinity Monastery, which was situated near the Bishop’s house, in the castle.
On November 15, 1700, Kazan Metropolitan Tikhon III removed his body under the south church-porch of cathedral. In 1841 – 1846, when the cathedral was extended, body of Tikhon I was laid into the burial vault under the main altar.
The sixth Kazan archbishop Jeremiah was from Moscow merchants. He was tonsured a monk in the Joseph Volokolamsk Monastery. In 1567, he was elevated by St. Herman to the rank of Archimandrite of the Kazan Savior – Transfiguration Monastery. When St. German was in Moscow Jeremiah lived with him. When St. German died, Archimandrite Jeremiah together with Archimandrite Hirodion, abbot of the Sviyazhsk Monastery, buried him. Since 1576, Archbishop Jeremiah was on the Kazan See. At the time of his minister on July 8, 1579 was found Kazan icon of The God’s Mother. In 1581 he died. Perhaps, last days of his life he spent in the Joseph’s monastery. There he was buried.
Archbishop Cosmas was the seventh hierarch on the Kazan See. Since September 2, 1572, Cosmas was an abbot of the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery in the Novgorod diocese. On October 29, 1581 he was consecrated Archbishop of Kazan and Sviyazhsk. The time when he stopped governing the Kazan cathedra, is unknown. He died in 1583 in the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery.
Archbishop Tikhon II
In 1581, when Polish king Stephan Batory besieged the Holy Dormition Monastery of the Caves in Pskov, abbot Tikhon was leader of the defenders. When he became a bishop and when he died is unknown. In 1589, he participated in the council, which chose first Russian Patriarch Job. After that the Kazan diocese was raised to the rank of Metropolitanate.
Metropolitan Hermogen was from Don Cossacks. According to his own words, he was at first a priest in the Kazan St. Nicholas Church. Then he took his monastic vows and since 1582 was an Archimandrite of the Savior – Transfiguration of the Lord Monastery in Kazan. On May 13, 1589, he was consecrated bishop and since that time he was the first Metropolitan of Kazan.
While his ministry in 1579 the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God was appeared and found. Priest Hermogen with the blessing of Archbishop Jeremiah translated it from the place, where it had been found, to St. Nicholas Church. As a talented writer, St. Hermogen compiled in 1594 a “Story about finding of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God and about miracles from it”. He is also author of the service devoted to this icon. In 1591, Metropolitan Hermogen gathered during seven days newly baptized Tatars in the Cathedral and preached sermons before them about Christian faith.
In 1592 St. Herman’s relics were removed to the Kazan diocese. St. Herman, the second Kazan archbishop, died in Moscow in 1567 and was buried near the St. Nicholas Church. St. Hermogen with the blessing of Patriarch Iov (Job) laid these relics in the Sviyazhsk Monastery.
On January 9, 1592, Hermogen sent a letter to Patriarch Iov. In this letter he wrote, that in Kazan were not commemorated Christian soldiers, which had laid there lives for the faith and Fatherland in the battle at Kazan. Metropolitan Hermogen asked to set the date of their commemoration. He also informed patriarch about three Kazan martyrs. One of them, Ioann (commemoration on January 24), Russian from Nizhniy Novgorod, was captivated by Tatars. Two others, Stephan and Peter (commemoration on March 24), were baptized Tatars. St. Hermogen felt sorry, that they had not been inscribed into the Great Synodik, which was read on Sunday of Orthodoxy, and they had not been sung Memory Eternal. Patriarch Iov resolved by his decree from February 25 to commemorate orthodox soldiers killed at Kazan all over the Kazan diocese on next Sunday after the Intercession of the Mother of God. With the blessing of patriarch St. Hermogen set the day of commemoration of three Kazan martyrs. They also were inscribed into the Great Synodik together with killed soldiers. St. Hermogen was zealous in faith and firm in keeping of the church traditions. He took care about baptizing of Tatars.
In 1595 were found relics of Kazan wonder-workers: St. Gury (the first Kazan archbishop) and St. Varsonofy (Bishop of Tver). When coffins of the saints were opened Hermogen and all people saw incorrupt bodies and clothes. Patriarch and tsar were informed about that. With their blessing and permission, these relics were laid in the new church. St. Hermogen wrote description of St. Gury’s and St. Varsonofy’s lives.
On July 3, in 1606 Metropolitan Hermogen was elected by the Hierarchical Council to the Moscow Patriarchal Throne. He was enthroned in the Moscow Dormition Cathedral. According to an ancient custom Patriarch Hermogen astride a donkey made procession around the Kremlin.
When Hermogen was patriarch, many church books were published: Gospel, Monthly Menaion, Big Church Typicon and others. Hermogen saw up to condition of the text in these books. With his blessing from, Greek into Slavonic was translated text of the service to St. Apostle Andrew the First Called. St. Andrew’s commemoration in the Cathedral of the Dormition was continued as before. At that time, under his supervision were manufactured new printing presses and was built new printing-house instead of the former, burned in 1611. St. Hermogen took care of keeping the church rules, piety of clergy and people.
Patriarch Hermogen was clever, highly educated, vise man. He studied a lot in the libraries of monasteries, first of all in the richest library of the Moscow Chudov monastery. There he worked with ancient manuscripts. In his works many references to the Holy Scriptures and examples from the history can be found. It testifies to his erudition his deep knowledge of the Word of God.
Public activity of St. Hermogen coincided with invasion of impostor Lzhedmitry II and Polish king Sigizmund III. St. Hermogen gave all his power to service to the Church and Fatherland. All Russian people helped him in this feat. St. Hermogen with special strength resisted against enemies and traitors of the fatherland, which wanted to subjugate Russian people, set Uniatism and Catholicism and destroy Orthodox Christianity. When impostor was near Moscow, in Tushino, Patriarch Hermogen sent him and to the traitors two letters. In the first letter he wrote: “You’ve forgotten the vows of our Orthodox faith, in which we were born, baptized, brought up and grew. You betrayed the Holy Cross and your oath to fight till death for the Kingdom of the Mother of God and for Moscow state and followed your false tsar. I’m sick at heart, my soul grieves and suffers, I cry and scream: brothers and children, have mercy on your souls and your parents, dead and alive. Look, foreigners rob our Fatherland, holy icons and churches are profaned, blood of innocents appeals to God. Recall, against whom you fight: against God, your Creator, against your brothers, against you Fatherland. In the name of the God stop it!”
In another patriarch asked: “For God’s sake look at yourselves and stop, make happy your parents, wives, children and all of us. We’ll pray to God for you.”
On December 11, 1610 “thief from Tushino” was killed by his own favorites. However, Moscow was still in danger. There were Poles and traitors to Russia, devoted to Sigizmund III. Letters from patriarch encouraged Russian people to liberate Moscow from enemies and to elect new legal tsar. Moscow people rose up, after that Poles set city on fire and took shelter in Kremlin. Poles with Russian traitors imprisoned Patriarch Hermogen into the Chudov Monastery. On Bright Monday 1611 Russian emergency volunteer corps came to Moscow and began the siege of Kremlin. Several times Poles demanded patriarch that he gave order to Russian force to move away from Moscow. They threatened him with capital punishment.
Hermogen remained firm and answered them: “Why are you threatening me? I fear only God. If you all Polish people go away from Moscow state, I’ll order Russian force to move away from Moscow. If you stay here, I’ll order to Russian force to fight with you and to die for Orthodox faith.” From prison St. Hermogen sent his last letter to Russian people, in which he approved (blessed) of liberating war against invaders. However, there was not at that time any sense of unanimity between Russian military leaders and they couldn’t capture the Kremlin and set free their Primate Hermogen. He was in prison for more than 9 month and in 1612 he died of starvation. He was buried in the Chudov Monastery and in 1654 his relics were translated to the Moscow Cathedral of the Dormition.
Canonization of St. Hermogen followed in 1913. For this event liturgical texts were written and icons of new saint were drown. On the ceremony of canonization (May 12, 1913) was present Patriarch of Antioch, more than 20 Russian bishops took part in the service. It was the beginning of veneration of St, Hermogen, Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia.
Metropolitan Ephraim was zealous defender of Orthodoxy, independence and unity of Russian state. He was appointed to the Kazan cathedra in August 1606 after St. Hermogen. He was worth it to become a successor of St. Hermogen. Strong faith, love to native country and a great talent for organization of Metropolitan Ephraim were revealed in a hard period of the Russian history known as Time of Troubles. At that strained and uneasy time he devoted his energies to safe peace in his diocese, to prevent civil commotion. And when from Moscow were received letters with calls to recruit the volunteer military forces and to send them off to Moscow for war against Poles, metropolitan Ephraim with sympathy treated to it. With his blessing, first volunteer military corps were recruited. Soon it fell apart, but Ephraim’s service was that he could organize people at that troubled time. Patriotic activity of Metropolitan Ephraim raised him in Moscow nobility’s eyes. All letters with calls to war from Moscow were sent to his name. Patriarch Hermogen from prison wrote letter to Metropolitan Ephraim and asked him to teach forces to be strong in faith. It was St. Hermogen’s will, and Ephraim executed it. Metropolitan Ephraim sent letters to many cities of Povolzhye (Volga Region). In these letters metropolitan called to defend unity with Moscow, independence of Russian state from Polish intervention. Ephraim’s popularity was so big, that forces of Minin and Pozharsky couldn’t decide to go to Moscow without council with him. In war for independence, Russian people were winners. On October 22, 1612, Moscow was cleaned from Poles by volunteer military corps and thanks to intercession of the Mother of God. Metropolitan Ephraim sent copy of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God to Moscow.
After expulsion of Poles from Moscow, the question of choosing of new tsar came up. Metropolitan Ephraim was invited to Moscow for decision of this important problem.
He was a chairman on the Great Zemsky Council, which was on February 21, 1613, and the first subscribed a document about election of new tsar (Michael Fedorovich Romanov). On July 11, 1613, Metropolitan Ephraim together with the “Holy Council” crowned Michael Fedorovich. Then he taught new tsar to protect the Orthodox Church, Russian state, to esteem clergy and to love native nation. Anointing Michael Fedorovich on the reign, Metropolitan Ephraim finished a great affair and so executed his sacred duty. Michael Fedorovich presented the Gospel to Metropolitan Ephraim and after this that went to Kazan, where he lived not for a long time. On December 26, 1613 Metropolitan Ephraim died. He was buried in a cave of the Savior-Transfiguration Monastery, where relics of Kazan wonderworkers Gury and Varsonofy were found.
In a history Metropolitan Matthew is known since July, 2, 1606 when he was appointed abbot of the Kyrillo-Belozersky Monastery. He governed the named monastery during Time of Troubles (1606-1615), having shown thus wise administrative ability. To his activity concerns also the organization of defense of a monastery from attacks of Lithuanians and Poles. With his patriotic actions abbot Matthew gained a big trust among clerical and secular authority.
In 1613 he was invited to Moscow. As a prominent person, he took part in a Great Zemsky Council, which was held on February 21, 1613 in order to elect new tsar.
Patriotic and public activity of Abbot Matthew has put him forward of other clerical persons. He was elected candidate to the Kazan Metropolitanate. On February 7, 1615 Matthew was consecrated of Bishop of Kazan and Sviyazhsk with elevation to the rank of Metropolitan. However, it was not quiet enough in the Kazan land at that time. Echoes of Time of Troubles were on the all Volga region. Therefore, it was required to the Kazan cathedra an active and firm bishop like a right reverend Matthew.
Activity of Metropolitan Matthew in the Kazan diocese was extensive and various. First, he had to pacify rebelling heterodoxies; frequently it was necessary to assort disputable affairs of the Kazan military men, to reconcile them among themselves. Different people consulted with him about all everyday questions, he could answer both how to organize defense of city, and what weapon to apply, and where to get it. Metropolitan Matthew enjoyed the confidence of the tsar and patriarch, which listened to opinion of the Kazan bishop as a person of objective judgments. Metropolitan Matthew, being the man state, and also hierarch after the arrival to Kazan, has proved as an active church figure taking care of his heterogeneous flock and about various needs of the diocese. He aspired to strength Orthodoxy in the diocese. With this purpose, he carried out translation of the relics of St. Gury esteemed in Kazan from the Savior – Transfiguration Monastery to the Annunciation Cathedral (on June 20, 1630). In the cause of strengthening of Orthodox in the Kazan land, missionary activity of Metropolitan Matthew had great value. However, intense conditions among the new Christians, developed during Time of Troubles, did not allow developing widely the missionary cause. Therefore, St. Matthew tried to keep in Orthodoxy mainly newly baptized natives protecting them from non – Christian fellow citizens. Metropolitan Matthew paid a great attention to construction of monasteries in the Kazan land considering them support of Orthodoxy. Thus was arisen a well – known (remote monastery) “Of the Seven Lakes” situated in a distance of 18 kilometers from Kazan. Another famous Pustyn, Raithu Monastery, was arranged almost simultaneously with the Pustyn “Of the Seven Lakes” with the blessings of this hierarch. To the first years of his ministry of the Kazan diocese is date back the arrangement of the Trinity Uraevskaya Pustyn. In 1625 was founded Savior – Junginsky Monastery. It was the fourth orthodox monastery arranged throughout the time of ministry of Metropolitan Matthew there. Within three years here were constructed two churches – one in honor of the Image "Not-Made-By-Hands" of our Lord Jesus Christ, another – in honor of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God. A lot of attention Metropolitan Matthew gave to the accomplishment of the Bishop’s House. Metropolitan Matthew fruitfully governed the Kazan diocese during 31 years – the longest of all his predecessors and successors. He died on January 13, 1646. He was buried in the cathedral church at the north wall.
Metropolitan Simon (Serbian) was appointed to Kazan on February 7, 1646. He died on September 26, 1649, and was buried in the cathedral church at the north wall.
Metropolitan Kornily I (Cornelius)
Metropolitan Kornely I in 1647-1649 was an abbot of the Makariev Zheltovodsky Monastery, then (since February, 1649) – an abbot of the Moscow Epiphany Monastery. On January 13, 1650 he was consecrated Bishop of Kazan and Sviyazhsk with elevation tj the rank of metropolitan.
Under Metropolitan Kornily, the Smolensk Icon of the Mother of God, brought to the Pustyn “Of Seven Lakes” became famous for many miracles. In 1652, Metropolitan Kornily participated in election of Patriarch Nikon. He was present also at councils concerning correction of books.
Death of Metropolitan Kornily was on August 17, 1655. This hierarch was buried in the Kazan Cathedral.
Metropolitan Kornily II (Cornelius)
Metropolitan Kornily II (in the holy Baptism - Cosmas) was born in a Boyar family in Moscow. He took his monastic vows in the Zelenetskaya Pustyn of the Novgorod diocese, and there he was ordained to the rank of hieromonk. Since autumn of 1665 he was an Archimandrite of the Tikhvinsky Monastery, since March 10, 1668 was an abbot of the above – mentioned abode. On March 16, 1673, he was consecrated Bishop of Kazan and Sviyazhsk with elevation to the rank of metropolitan, but he stayed to live in Moscow and didn’t want to go to Kazan.
On July 26, 1674, Metropolitan Kornily headed ceremony of the consecration of Archbishop of Novgorod Joachim to Patriarch of All Russia, and on August 6, 1674, he was appointed to the Novgorod Metropolitan cathedra, which he administrated for 20 years.
When in 1681 Patriarch Nikon died, Metropolitan Kornily, convinced by Tsar Feodor Alexeyevich, buried patriarch according to the Episcopal order.
On March 3, 1695 Metropolitan Kornily was dismissed for rest, and he settled in the above – mentioned Zelenetsky Monastery. Here he lived for 3 years without leaving his cell, keeping absolute silence and thinking only of God. All the day and night metropolitan prepared to give himself up to the Judgment of God, and God gave him Christian death. The last words of Metropolitan Kornily were: “Peace and blessing of God with you.” On February 26, 1698 he died and was buried near the sepulcher of venerable Martiry.
Metropolitan Kornily worked in the Zelenetsky Monastery very much. He described the life of venerable Martiry and wrote him the service.
Pious inhabitants of Novgorod treat to St. Kornily with a great reverence and serve the panikhida (Memorial Service) over his grave.
Metropolitan Ioasaf (Joasaf)
On July 1671, St. Ioasaf mentioned as an Archimandrite of the Savior –St. Euphimius Monastery. On September 6, 1674, he was consecrated Bishop of Kazan and Sviyazhsk with elevation to the rank of metropolitan. He governed the Kazan diocese until his death on January 30, 1686. He was buried in the cathedral church at the north wall.
Metropolitan Ioasaf worked a lot on reconstruction of cathedral churches and the Bishop’s House after the fire in 1672. He was the only of all Russian hierarchs, who had a title “Bishop of Kazan and Bulgaria”.
Metropolitan Adrian is another Kazan hierarch whom dropped out the lots of the All-Russia patriarchal ministry. He was born on October 2, 1637 or 1639 in Moscow. In a sacred Baptism was given the name of Andrew. It is nothing left about his life up to taking the vows. In a history, he was mentioned for the first time being already Archimandrite of the Chudov Monastery (1678-1686) and the authorized representative of Patriarch Joachim. In the monastery, he became famous for building activity. According to his petition and under his management some temples and all monastic buildings were reconstructed according to a new plan.
Archimandrite Adrian proved himself a strict advocate of monastic virtue. In a monastic temple, he allocated special places for men and women and arranged for them even separate entrances in a temple.
Outstanding personal qualities of Archimandrite Adrian his prominent position in the Chudov Monastery, well known at that time, encouraged his promotion to a bishop’s post. On March 21, 1686, Patriarch Joachim consecrated him Bishop of Kazan and Sviyazhsk with elevation to the rank of Metropolitan. About activity of Metropolitan Adrian in the Kazan diocese have not preserved almost any data either. It is known only, that in this diocese he enriched with his contributions the Annunciation Cathedral and published the book "About position of fingers during the sign of the cross."
After four years of administration of the Kazan diocese, on August 24, 1690, Metropolitan Adrian was elevated to the All-Russia patriarchate. On this high post, he was put forward as a representative of the Old Russian (Greek - Russian) party.
Newly elected patriarch promised in his speech to lead Russian Church according to Greek - Russian way. Expression of this promise was the district message of the patriarch to all flock. This message included 24 items of admonitions to all groups of Russian society, beginning from bishops and finishing slaves. His admonitions were filled with spirit of meekness and love. Manuals of the new patriarch concerned all vital questions, not excluding trifles.
Patriarch Adrian directed special efforts in the first half of patriarchate against penetrating influence of the West into all sides of Russian life. But, drastic measures like these were not characteristic of Patriarch Adrian as a person. He expressed the indignation only in messages, but didn’t undertake any practical measures of a protection of Russian society from German influence.
In the first years of the patriarchate, he had some influence on the state life, but further for the struggle against foreign innovations Patriarch Adrian met the main obstacle on behalf of young Tsar Peter I, who sharply straightened out patriarch for his attempts to point to him that he adopted German customs. Such attitude held back energy of Patriarch Adrian. Tsar soon released him from participation in all state affairs as opposed to custom existed earlier when both church and state authorities coordinated the actions with each other. Tsar with patriarch had some collisions when Adrian was obviously right, but couldn’t protect the opinion. Therefore, both tsar and society saw in patriarch a weak-willed hierarch, indecisive to govern courageously and resolutely. Adjusted to live according to the Gospel, meek patriarch Adrian couldn’t oppose his moral force to the physical strength of tsar and by that he undermined his authority both in opinion of the tsar, and in opinion of all Russian society. He didn’t participate not only in state affairs, but also in affairs of Church completely agreed with instructions of Peter I. The authority of the patriarch as a head of Russian Church disappeared. He stopped addressing to people with his messages. There weren’t any district messages, lectures or manuals of him in the second half of his patriarchate.
The Church loosed domination in the state. Activity of Peter 1 demanded the big means. Military charges devastated the state treasury, and the last required additional sources. Thus, Peter turned his head towards the Church and monastic property. All incomes and charges of the Church passed under the control of the state. These actions led to full decline of the church and monastic economies. In 20 years all church possession did not bring already former incomes and dragged a miserable existence.
Patriarch Adrian could not either guide order in business of church management. A lot of energy was required to put into practice those actions, which inspired patriarch at his introduction on the patriarchal throne. For a long time has ripened necessity to increase the number of dioceses and to improve the bishop’s supervision of a life of flock. It was necessary to collect all moral forces of pastors for protection of flock against heterodoxy approaching to Russia, and also against internal enemies - dissenters and sectarians. There has sharply risen a question about development of church education of Russian society. Patriarch Adrian did not resolve all these questions as he did not take the initiative, and all affairs solved only with participation of the consecrated Council consisted of eparchial bishops called on succession of priest service. Having offered all affairs to be considered on the Councils, patriarch made own authority little appreciable and influential. Therefore in church management under Patriarch Adrian wasn’t made anything new, outstanding, strong and vital, that would have pointed out to the wide scope of activity of the patriarch and his Council. Even in urgent affairs, demanded more administrative decision, Patriarch Adrian did not get by without the Council. Frequently, the indecision and sluggishness in consideration of some pressing matters, he raised in persons closed to him displeasure. They demanded him to get down to urgent requests more vigorously.
A duty of Patriarch Adrian was the top management of activity of eparchial bishops to create a uniform direction of a church life of Russian people. In this question patriarch also didn’t revealed neither determination, nor independence. If bishops addressed to him for instructions of drastic measures directed to ordering of any sides of a church life or to supremacy in Russia of Orthodoxy, he feared of resolute actions, preferred to put in order a church life gradually, without noise, trying to offend nobody with his orders. He appreciated the peace in church and did not listen to any messages about trouble of a moral condition of this or that monastery. His sublime constitution of character did not allow him to go down in depth of the life. And from pastors he demanded such mood, which would be higher than everyday squabbles. For the sake of the church peace, Patriarch Adrian was ready to renounce the justice. Peaceful disposition and care in all church questions couldn’t satisfy adherents of Orthodoxy.
Eparchial bishops, feeling weakness of the central church authority, did not listen to a voice of primate, and sometimes did not obey even to direct orders of the patriarch, considering them unsuitable. Patriarch Adrian avoided intervention in the internal life and the relations between pastors and their flock. Gentle and kind patriarch fell under the influence of stronger persons surrounding him. But it is not correct to characterize activity of Patriarch Adrian only from the negative side. He succeeded in business of strengthening relationship between Russia and the Ukraine, which was annexed to Russia only four years before Adrian had been elevated on the patriarchal throne. Personal high qualities of Patriarch Adrian covered in opinion of the Ukrainian clergy his lacks as the manager and created relations of trust between two Churches. Character of friendly relations which were established between Patriarch Adrian and the Kiev Metropolitan Varlaam, positively influenced on many sides of the church life in the Kiev Metropolitanate. Patriarch Adrian played a positive role in a business of development of education in the Ukraine. He didn’t take the initiative in this question, but his support of petitions of the Kiev Metropolitan Varlaam promoted that the Kiev Brotherhood School achieved for a short time a high level in theological education and in training of educated clergy.
Important point of administrative ministry of Patriarch Adrian in the field of eparchial management was his "Instructions for church wardens and for deans" (1698). This instruction touched on some questions of eparchial management. The list of questions testified to especial care of the patriarch of right current of the eparchial life. He paid attention to solemnity of divine services, to moral behavior of clergy and flock and a number of other sides of a life of dioceses. Patriarch Adrian put in order affair of control system. He established the personal responsibility of everyone for the charged business.
Patriarch Adrian left about himself a kind memory also in business of church construction. He built new and reconstructed old temples, updated and reconstructed rooms of the patriarchal palace, cared of accomplishment of the Moses Convent in Moscow. In him was felt the expert and the fan of construction.
Many weak points in activity of Patriarch Adrian can be explained with a difficult situation in the country and with heavy paralytic illness, which he was ill since 1696. This illness did not leave him up to the end of days, from time to time weakening or strengthen. At such constant indisposition it is not surprising, that Patriarch Adrian had no time for vigorous management of Church. Some people from his surrounding used weakness of the patriarch and made from his name everything that they wanted. A low moral level of all stratums of Russian society from the commoner up to ruling nobility, public ruin - that characterized Russia in XVII century. During this period next to nothing of educational measures was undertaken, because almost all bishops, didn’t differ from ordinary clergy, and the patriarch in spite of all high personal qualities couldn’t light " fire of zeal " in hearts of the assistants.
Though he also wrote messages and instructions to pastors, however practical measures to a rising of an educational level of clergy undertook very little. The only innovation was delivering to clerics at determination them to a parish together with a document "About priesthood" a printed lecture of Patriarch Adrian.
Thus, education in Russia was at that time in the sad, deserted condition. Publishing was in a bad condition too. From works of the patriarch are known only messages, caused with pastoral or administrative activity. However the merit of Patriarch Adrian consist in encouraging of appearance of such remarkable works of time as "Menologion" of St. Dimitry of Rostov and "Confession of belief" of Palladium Rogovsky. Thus, activity of Patriarch Adrian revealed its positive and negative sides.
Old paralytic illness of Patriarch Adrian strengthened by 1700. In September he fell ill. Three days before the death all his body was paralyzed.
On October 16, 1700 at one a.m. Patriarch Adrian died. His body was buried in the Dormition Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin.
Metropolitan Markell came from Southern Slavonic. The year of his birth is unknown. Before the monasticism, this archpastor worked in the Polish order of the translators of languages: Greek, Latin, German, Polish and Tatar. After taking the monastic vows, he was appointed to the post of judge in the Tiunskaya chamber at the patriarchal yard. Since 1679, he was an Archimandrite of the Svensky Monastery in Bryansk.
On March 21, 1680, Archimandrite Markell was consecrated Bishop of Suzdal and Yurievsk with elevation to the rank of archbishop. On September 6, 1681, he was transferred to the Pskov Metropolitan cathedra, and on September 8, 1690, he was transferred to Kazan, where he died on August 21, 1698, and was buried in the right side-altar of the cathedral church.
In 40s of the 19th century, relics of Metropolitan Markell were carried under the main altar together with relics of the right reverend Tikhon I and Lavrenty II.
In the time of Metropolitan Markell, on May 13, 1694, in Kazan occurred a big fire, which did harm relics of St. Varsonofy.
Metropolitan Tikhon III
Metropolitan Tikhon III (secular name Timofey Vasilievich Voinov) was born on February 21, 1655 in Nizhniy Novgorod. On April 8, 1677, he took his monastic vows in the Nizhniy Novgorod Annunciation Monastery.
Soon the future Kazan archbishop was ordained to the rank of hierodeacon, and Patriarch Adrian took him to Moscow (on July 3, 1679), where hierodeacon Tikhon was appointed to the post of sacristan.
On February 20, 1692, he was consecrated to the rank of hieromonk, and on April 3 of the same year he become an Archimandrite of Novospassky (New Savior) m Monastery.
On April 21, 1695 followed his Episcopal consecration with elevation to the rank of Metropolitan of Sarsk and Podonsk. On March 21, 1699, Metropolitan Tikhon was transferred to Kazan. He died on March 23, 1724.
In his time, according to the decree of Emperor Peter the Great, was founded the Slavonic – Latin school at the Bishop’s House in Kazan.
Metropolitan Sylvester (Holmsky) came from noblemen, was a student of the Kiev-Mogilyansk Academy. At the end of 17 century, he took his monastic vows and was appointed treasurer of the Hierarchical House in Novgorod. In December 1700, he was elevated to the rank of archimandrite of the Derevyannitsky Monastery, and in 1701 was appointed father superior of the Yuriev Monastery. On 22 October 1704 he was nominated to a position of the father superior of the Trinity- St. Sergius Laura, and on September 14, 1708 he was ordained to the rank of Metropolitan of Nizhniy Novgorod.
On March 5, 1719 he was transferred to the Smolensk Metropolitan’s See.
On March 3, 1720 in the same rank he was transferred to Tver with the instruction to wear black klobuk (a formal monastic headgear).
On February 3, 1723 he was appointed Bishop to Ryazan, and in August, 1725 – to Kazan, with the elevation to the rank of archbishop. On March 15, 1727 at his request, the rank of metropolitan was returned to him.
In the late 1730s Metropolitan of Kolomna Ignatius (Smola) was defrocked and banished in the Sviyazhsk Monastery. For the hospitable and tender reception rendered to him, and also in consequence of other denunciations, especially because of enmity with the Kazan governor A. P. Volynsky, on December 30, 1731, Metropolitan Sylvester was released from the post with prohibition of service and sent to the Alexander Nevsky Laura. By decree of the following day Metropolitan Sylvester was imprisoned in the Monastery of St. Alexander Nevsky without the right of an exit outside the walls of the monastery.
On March 28, 1732 Metropolitan Sylvester was banished in the Krypetsk Monastery in Pskov, on October 19 of the same year was deprived of the Archbishop’s rank and the priesthood and as an ordinary monk was banished to Vyborg, into the Germonsky castle where he died on May 31, 1735.
Archbishop Hilarion (Rogalevsky) came from a Minsk noble family, was brought up in the Kiev Academy, took his monastic vows in Minsk. When he was in a holy order of hierodeacon, Field Marshal B. P. Sheremetiev appointed him ober hieromonk of army. With the envoy Volynsky Hilarion was in Persia, and after returning therefrom he was determined ober hieromonk in fleet.
For some time hieromonk Hilarion was hegumen of the Lyubensk-Mgarsk Monastery, and since September 26, 1728 he is an Archimandrite of the Don monastery in Moscow, whence on April 16, 1732 he was consecrated Archbishop of Kazan.
In Kazan Archbishop Hilarion sowed his zealous activity for education. Having founded a Theological seminary at the Zilantov Monastery, he has put a building for it on Voskresenskaya street (nowadays Kremlin street), in which the seminary was located the day of its closing (in the beginning of the 20 century). On March 25, 1735 Archbishop Hilarion was transferred to the Chernigov See and in October, 1738 was dismissed on rest to the Kiev Caves Laura.
In 1742 Archbishop Hilarion was called to Petersburg. On the way to Petersburg, in Tver, he died and was buried in the Otrochy Monastery.
Bishop Luke (Konashevich) came from Malorus (Ukrainian), the year of his birth is not known. Bishop Luke studied at the Kiev Academy, from which he graduated in 1727 and took his monastic vows in the Sophia Monastery in Kiev. Since 1730, he was a teacher of elementary classes in the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy in Moscow, and on 9 September 1730 was nominated to the post of preacher. In July 1732, future archpastor was transferred in newly opened Petersburg Cadet College as a teacher of the law. On 4 February 1736 (according to another source, on 20 October 1735) was his assignment to the Simon Monastery to the rank of archimandrite.
On 18 September (according to another source, on 28 September) 1737 Archimandrite Luke was consecrated Bishop of Velikoustiug (Great Ustiug). Throughout his four-monthly stay in Ustiug Bishop Luke opened the Slavonic-Latin school with the seminary.
On 9 March 1738 he was transferred to the Kazan See instead of Archbishop Gabriel, who had been appointed to the Ustiug See. By cares of Bishop Luke the Kazan seminary, which he gave his personal library, was set in such flourishing condition so that it didn't concede the Kiev and Moscow Academies. In opinion of the historian of the Kazan diocese Archbishop Platon Lyubarsky, the Kazan diocese for the education, piety and the kind order is obliged to Bishop Luke. Bishop Luke did a lot for distribution of Christianity among pagans and Mohammedans of the Kazan province. He converted to Christianity many heterodoxies of the Kazan region. With the same purpose, the Kazan seminary was given a missionary bias. However being zealous in missionary affairs Bishop Luke used sometimes forced measures, for example, established religious processions and constructed churches in the Tatar large villages (the Tatar Sloboda), collected children of Mohammedans and pagans against their parents will in schools of newly accepted Christianity. It caused collisions with civil authority. In addition to it, there were many misuses on caused by the missionaries and by the converts themselves. All this rose violence and anger on the part of the last. Tatar mothers even frightened their children with Bishop Luke, calling him «karatun babai» («a black fur coat»).As a result heterodoxies addressed in the Holy Synod with complaints that they have been inverted in Christianity against their will, and the Synod recognized necessary to transfer Bishop Luke from Kazan.
On 9 October 1755 Bishop Luke was moved up from Kazan to Belgorod where he as usual before paid the main attention to educational institutions, especially to an accomplishment of the Kharkov Collegium. He bequeathed this educational institution a part of the property.
On 1 January 1758 Bishop Luke died and was buried in the Belgorod Cathedral.
Bishop Gavriil II (Gabriel)
Bishop Gavriil II (secular name Grigory Feodorovich Kremensky) was born in 1708 in Nosov town of Kiev region, where his father was a head. At first Bishop Gavriil trained at the Kiev Academy, then in the Kharkov Collegium and since 1733 at the Moscow Academy. In 1736 Grigory Kremensky was called to the St. Alexander Nevsky Monastery to work as a teacher in the seminary which had been lately opened there. In 1739 was tonsured into monasticism and in the following year was appointed to a position of the rector of this seminary. On April 5, 1748 he was appointed Archimandrite of the Novospassky (New Savior) Monastery and member of the Holy Synod. On September 17, 1749 he was consecrated Bishop of Kolomna and Kashiry, on October 29, 1755 he was transferred to Kazan, and on July 25, 1762 – to Petersburg and on July, 29 the same year he was elevated in a dignity of archbishop. On September 22, 1770 he was appointed to the Kiev Metropolitan See. In this rank, he died on August 8, 1783.
When a Kazan Archbishop, on May 10, 1758 he consecrated Methodius, Archimandrite of the Astrakhan Savior Monastery in a Bishop of Astrakhan.
Metropolitan Veniamin (Benjamin)
Metropolitan Veniamin (secular name Vasiliy Grigorievich Putsek-Grigorovich) was born in the beginning of the 18th century in Lokhvitsy town, the Poltava province. He studied at the Kiev Academy. Metropolitan Veniamin devoted the most part of his life to Kazan. In 1733 he was called here a teacher in newly opened Slavonic-Latin School. Then he became a lecture, and since 1744 prefect of the seminary founded here. After taking the monastic vows on December 6, 1744, he was elevated to the rank of archimandrite with assignment for a post of father superior of the Savior Monastery, simultaneously with the service in the seminary. At the same time, he preached The Word of God among Mohammedans and pagans. Since 1746, Archimandrite Veniamin was in Petersburg on a succession of service (it was his turn to serve in Petersburg) and here he
was appointed to the Nizniy Novgorod Archbishop’s See. On August 14, 1748, he was consecrated bishop. On March 2, 1753 he was transferred to Tver, and on October 6 of the same year was appointed member of the Holy Synod. On April 2, 1758 Bishop Veniamin was transferred to Pskov, on September 14, 1761 was appointed Archbishop of Petersburg, and on July 25, 1762 at his own request was transferred to Kazan. However, before his departure to Kazan he was present at the crowning of Catherine II (on September 22, 1762). In 1771, during his stay in Kazan, according to the legend, the city was relieved of a fatal ulcer by wonderwork after religious processions around the city walls with the Icon of the Mother of God “Of the Seven Lakes”. On December 5, 1772 by this hierarch, together with Bishop of Vyatka Region Bartholomew (Lyubarsky), Archimandrite of the Tobolsk Monastery of the Icon of the Mother of God “The Sign” Michail (Mitkevich) was consecrated Bishop of Irkutsk. After defeat of Yemelyan Pugachev on Bishop Veniamin was made under slander an accusation that he had dealt with him (with Pugachev). However, after strict investigation the innocence of archbishop was proved. After consideration of the affair by the empress on January 26, 1775 he even was elevated to the rank of metropolitan. In this holy order he governed the Kazan diocese till March 17, 1782, when at his own request with the right to receive pension of 4410 rubles. In the Sedmiyezernaya Pustyn (Monastery of the Icon of the Mother of God “Of The Seven Lakes”, located not far from Kazan), where he was dismissed on rest , he died in July, 1783.
Archbishop Anthony I
Archbishop Anthony I (secular name Alexey Gerasimovich Zybelin) was born in about 1730. Having finished his studies at the Moscow Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy he was ordained deacon, then after his wife died, in 1760 was tonsured a monk and 1761 was consecrated hieromonk, serving in the same Academy, in following posts: first as a teacher, since 1763 as a prefect, since March 20, 1768 as its rector. When a rector he was elevated Archimandrite of the Monastery of the Icon of the Savior. On October 10, 1770 he was ordained Bishop of Arkhangelsk in the Holy Assumption Cathedral in Moscow. On July 9, 1773 he was transferred to Nizhniy Novgorod, where in 1779 he opened his episcopal vicariate. In 1780 he was instructed to set vicariates in Kazan and in Simbirsk owing to an old age and a painful condition of the Kazan Metropolitan Benjamin to which place he was transferred on April 25, 1782 with elevation to the rank of archbishop. Archbishop Anthony governed the Kazan diocese not for a long time, because at his own request, on March 5, 1785 he was dismissed on rest to the Macarios Monastery in Nizhniy Novgorod with the right to run this monastery and to get pension of 1000 rubles, and there he died on September 27, 1797.
Archbishop Amvrosy I (Ambrose)
Archbishop Amvrosy I (secular name Andrey Ivanovich Podobedov), son of the priest of village Strogov, Pereyaslavsk district (uyezd), Vladimir province, was born on November 30, 1742. From 1752 to 1764 he studied at the Trinity – St. Sergius Seminary, and having finished his studies he became a teacher in it. On February 12, 1768 he was tonsured into monasticism, on March, 23 was consecrated hierodeacon. On September 22 was his consecration to the rank of hieromonk. In August of the same year hieromonk Ambrose was appointed preacher of the Moscow Slavonic – Greek – Latin Academy, and in 1771 was appointed to the post of its prefect, and in 1774 – to the post of rector.
On July 5, 1778 was his archbishop’s chirotony in Bishop of Sevsk, vicar of the Moscow diocese. On April 28, 1782 he was appointed Bishop of Krutitsk, and on March 27, 1785 – Archbishop of Kazan.
After ten years of administration of the Kazan diocese, in 1795, Archbishop Amvrosy was called to Petersburg to be present at the Holy Synod and was appointed its member. In 1798 in Kazan he received emperor Paul I who on May, 30 laid foundations of a cathedral on the territory of the convent.
On October 16, 1799 Prelate Amvrosy was appointed Archbishop of Petersburg, Estonia and Finland, and on December 19, 1800 also of Novgorod. On March 10, 1801 was his elevation to the rank of metropolitan. On March 26, 1818 he was released at his own request from the post of Archbishop of Petersburg diocese and administrated the Novgorod diocese till April 6 of the same year when he received a total dismissal on rest and died in the same 1818 on May, 21.
In all dioceses where Archbishop Amvrosy administrated, he left in the minds of people memories of himself as a spreader of spiritual education. He founded a seminary in Sevsk, in Orel and Bryansk - Theological schools; the Krutitsk seminary was brought in order, set up Theological schools in Borovsk and Belev; built a seminary in Kazan on a place burned down in 1774, founded schools for newly accepted a Christianity; he also set up some schools in the Novgorod diocese . Archbishop Amvrosy was the first of Kazan hierarchs, who had a diamond cross on the klobuk (1795) and was awarded other different awards: Order of St. Alexander Nevsky (1796), Order of St. John of Jerusalem (1798), diamond signs (1801), Order of St. Apostle Andrew the First-Called (1799), diamond signs (1806) and Order of St. Vladimir I degree (1808).
Archbishop Serapion (secular name Stefan Sergeyevich Alexandrovsky) had the title Archbishop of Kazan and Simbirsk. He was born on July 27, 1747 in Alexandrov town, Vladimir province where his father was a priest in a convent. After graduating from the Trinity seminary in 1770, he was left as a teacher in it. On February 8, he was tonsured a monk, on June 29 was consecrated hierodeacon. Since January, 1772 became a preacher in the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy, on March, 30 he was ordained hieromonk, in March, 1775 was appointed abbot of the Monastery of the Elevation of the Cross in Moscow. Being in this post, he spent 1782 in Petersburg on a succession of service and sermon of the Word of God. On June 11, 1788 he was consecrated Bishop of Dmitrov, at the same time he was nominated abbot of the Epiphany Monastery. Bishop Serapion has been a vicar of the Moscow metropolitanate for 11, 5 years. Since 1792, he governed all Moscow diocese under supervision of Metropolitan Platon who lived in Laura. On October 16, 1799 he was appointed Bishop of Kaluga, but on October 21 was transferred to Kazan and was elevated to the rank of archbishop. He administrated the Kazan diocese till his appointment on December 11, 1803 to the Kiev Metropolitan See. He governed the Kiev diocese for 18 years. On January 24, 1822 according to his application was dismissed on rest with preservation of all maintenance received by him, and on September 14, 1824 he died and was buried in the Sofia Cathedral in Kiev. He had orders of St. Ann I degree (1727), St. Alexander Nevsky (1805), St. Apostle Andrew the First-Called (1814) and some diamond signs.